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|NOTICE: The data on this web page is compiled from numerous sources and presents the conclusions of various research activities. Nothing on this page should be construed as a statement that any vitamin, mineral, or other food supplement will cure or prevent any disease or medical condition. Please consult your personal physician for such diagnoses.|
SF = Super Foods WF = Whole Food Extracts T: Tonic Whole-Herb Extracts N: Naturally occurring food Factors ** è No RDA established.
|Vitamin A (5000 IU = 100%)||1000 RE or 5000 IU||800 RE or 4000 IU||5,000-25,000 IU||
IU per day can be harmful. 25,000
IU daily for long time is overdose.
Stick to the RDA.
Difficulty seeing at night because retina needs vitamin A to function
properly. More susceptible
to illness (esp. viral infections).
deposits of keratin like little goose bumps around your hair follicles
making your skin feel rough & dry.
O: Blurred vision, bone pain, headaches, diarrhea, loss of appetite, skin scaling/peeling, drowsiness, hair loss, irritability, lethargy, vomiting & muscular weakness. Can also cause birth defects if you are pregnant. Can also cause problems if you have kidney disease. It’s better to take beta carotene.
your heart, vision, hair, & skin
Med: Prevents infection.
Needed for healthy skin, hair, mucous membranes, & strong bones
Vitamin to be discovered (1913) – called the “anti-infective
agent.” Strong defense against infection by lining the epithelial
tissues (cells that comprise skin & line eyes, mouth, nose, throat,
lungs, digestive tract, & urinary tract) & helping them grow
& repair themselves. Boosts
immune system and essential for healthy eyes.
Required to produce healthy replacement cells & keep bones
& teeth strong. Antioxidant
activity helps prevent cataracts (cloudiness in the eye lenses).
Vitamin A also helps prevent age-related macular degeneration
(AMD). The macula is a tiny
cluster of very sensitive cells in the center of your retina –
essential for sharp vision.
You’ll actually absorb more carotenes from cooking your food.
It’s best to steam, bake, or grill them though.
The less water, the better.
Today, you can get water-based carotenes which seem to be absorbed better.
|Vitamin D (200 IU = 50%)||5 mcg or 200 IU||Same
need more as you age to keep bones strong & to avoid osteoporosis.
Men & women 65 & older can cut risk of bone fracture in
half with 700 IU of Vitamin D and 500 IU of Calcium daily.
may be deficient if you are darker skinned, older, don’t get any
sunlight, have kidney or liver disease, take cholesterol reduction
drugs; take “cortisone” drugs for allergies, asthma, or arthritus;
Take anticonvulsant drugs, strict vegetarian or vegan, abuse alcohol.
with insufficient vitamin D get “rickets” where their bones don’t
grow & harden properly.
doses (i.e., over 1000 IU) can cause calcium build-up in your blood,
increase risk of heart attack, or kidney stones.
1 mg = 40 IU
heart & prostate health
Med: enables you to use
calcium properly. Needed
for normal muscle & nerve function.
Created by your body when exposed to sunlight.
Only need 10 minutes per day during summer (2 hours in your face
during winter). [UV light is blocked by glass]
UV light in sunshine makes a type of cholesterol that’s found
just under your skin turn into vitamin D3, or cholecalciferol. Vitamin D
occurring naturally in some foods & supplements is Vitamin D2,
ergocalciferol (also called calcifidiol and calcitrol).
keeping your bones & immune system healthy. Vitamin D is required for making monocytes (special white
blood cells that fight infection – about 5% of all blood cells).
cancer, breast cancer, & other cancers. These cancers are more common among people in northern
climates due to insufficient sun exposure.
Vitamin D also helps treat some cancers.
Vitamin D is
required for calcium to make your bones strong, send messages through
nerves, and to make muscles contract as when your heart beats.
Vitamin D regulates how much calcium you absorb from your food.
· In some cases, vitamin D helps restore some hearing in older adults.
E (100 IU= 333%)
Also called Tocopherol
|10 mg or 15 IU||8 mg or 12 IU||200-400 IU||
lasting months or years can eventually lead to nerve damage especially
in the spinal cord and eye retina.
you have cystic fibrosis, Chrohn’s disease, liver disease, are on
low-fat low-calorie diet, or take cholesterol-reduction drugs, you may
be vitamin E deficient.
really need 100 IU daily to get the benefits of vitamin E, but about the
only way to get this much is through supplements.
Natural E is better than synthetic.
Natural E in supplements is called d-alpha-tocopherol and the
synthetic version is dI-alpha-tocopherol. (just look for supplements
with the d prefix). The wet
form in gel capsules absorbs better unless you have trouble digesting
fats or oils.
helps vitamin E work better & longer.
even in large doses of 5000 IU/day, but larger than that can block use
of vitamin A.
High heat, light, & freezing breaks down vitamin E.
1 mg = 1.49 IU.
Really improve immunity in older adults. (study shows 200 mg of E for 33 weeks had more active
immune systems). Helps
prevent artherosclerosis & hence heart attacks.
Can prevent existing heart disease from getting worse.
Provides a powerful antioxidant.
Needed for immune system & hormone production.
prevent heart disease and stop it from getting worse (400 IU/day reduce
chances of nonfatal heart attack by 77%).
Can also aid cancer prevention & improve your immune system.
Also teams with Vitamins A & C for maximum antioxidant
protection (particularly in cell membranes).
Can aid in diabetes protection.
Vitamin E is family of different compounds divided into 2
(includes alpha, beta, gamma, & delta)
& tocotrienols (includes alpha, beta, gamma, & delta).
artherosclerosis through antioxidant action preventing cholesterol from
oxidizing into artery-clogging deposits.
In doses on order
of 2000 IU/day slows down Alzheimer’s but doesn’t stop it or prevent
· Suspected to help with male infertility, benign breast disease, diabetes blood sugar control, eye lens protection, cataract prevention, leg cramps, Parkinson’s disease.
|Vitamin K (50 mcg = 62%)||80 mcg||64 mcg||
to make blood clots that stops bleeding from injury.
3 Kinds: K1 (phylloquinone) in plant foods.
K2 (menaquinone) created by friendly bacteria in your intestines,
and K3, (menadione) the artificial form.
helps you hold calcium in your bones and make sure it’s getting to the
is rare, but when occurs it’s due to serious liver damage, Crohn’s
disease, ulcerative colitus, antibiotic pills taken for long periods, or
cholesterol-reduction pills. The
major symptom is long-time bleeding from minor injuries, big
black-&-blue marks from very slight bruises or no reason,
nosebleeds, blood in urine, & intestinal bleeding.
Any more than 100 mcg/day in synthetic form can be toxic & might cause liver damage.
necessary elements for blood clotting, bone formation, & kidney
for blood clotting in injuries.
bones grab onto calcium, put it in the right place, & hold onto it
once there. Without enough
vitamin K, you won’t be able to form new bone very well. Long-term
shortage can lead to osteoporosis or brittle bones that break easily.
Recent tests imply K slows down or kills tumor cells.
C (150 mg =
causes scurvy (only takes 10 mg/day to prevent scurvy) after several
weeks with no vitamin C in your diet. Symptoms start as sore &
bleeding gums, loose teeth, fatigue, appetite loss, muscle weakness,
nosebleeds, bruising, sore joints, slow wound healing, and anemia.
Bruising is a sure sign of vitamin C deficiency.
If you are tired all the time and bruise easily, take 500 mg per
day; bruising will reduce
in a week.
you get more than 200 mg at a time, you pass the excess in urine.
3 times the RDA is
optimal. Several thousand
mg per day are perfectly safe. If
you get over 2000 mg/day, you could get upset stomach, diarrhea, &
need more vitamin C if you smoke, have diabetes, allergies or asthma,
sick with cold or flu, recently had surgery, under stress, if you’re
older, pregnant, breastfeeding; regularly take aspirin, birth control
pills, antibiotics, or cortisone; if you abuse alcohol.
C breaks down when exposed to light, heat, water, or air.
Buy just a few weeks supply at a time and & store it in a
cool, dark, dry place.
D: Scurvy, M: Diabetes
healthy heart & good vision
you feel a little better when you have cold or flu & may help get
over it sooner. Can lower
cholesterol & blood pressure. Provides
very powerful antioxidants. Crucial
for connective tissue, strong bones, & healing of wounds.
(strong connective tissue holding your skeleton together, attaches
muscles to bones, build strong blood vessels, & keeps organs &
skin in place.
antioxidants do their job better.
manufacture many hormones.
Cures some types
of male infertility
Lowers blood pressure which lessens likelihood of stroke or heart
Does NOT prevent
or cure colds, but can make you feel better sooner.
Large doses help
many health problems such as asthma, as well as or better than stronger
Stress and illness
increases your need for vitamin C.
If you take 1000-2000 mg
per day for several weeks, respiratory allergies will calm down
noticeably. The same amount
also reduces the number and severity of asthma attacks.
Vitamin C is even more
effective for asthma if you take extra magnesium.
Helps prevent premature
Helps treat lead
poisoning by excreting the lead faster.
Slows onset of Parkinson’s disease.
|Vitamin B-1 Thiamin (10 mg = 667%)||1.5 mg||1.1 mg||2-100 mg||No known toxicity level||
vitamins convert food to energy. Creates
for healthy skin, hair, blood, immune system, nerves, & cell growth
body cells & especially nerves working right.
Important for mental functions (esp. memory).
Required to convert food (i.e., carbohydrates) to energy.
Thiamin Pyrophosphate (TPP) enzyme required for turning food into
energy. Keeps brain &
nervous system fueled. Brain
runs on glucose (a sugar created by breaking down carbohydrates). Thiamin helps your brain & nervous system absorb
glucose. If brain doesn’t
get enough fuel, you get forgetful, depressed, tired, & apathetic.
Also keeps heart muscles elastic and working smoothly.
Mild deficiency can also cause constipation.
Deficiency of Thiamin
can result in disease, beriberi (which means “I can’t, I can’t”)
So many people in the
developed world abuse alcohol, that thiamin deficiency may be the most
common vitamin deficiency of all. WHY: Alcoholics tend to eat poorly & they don’t take
enough Thiamin. Alcohol
destroys Thiamin they do take in and make them excrete more Thiamin. Can eventually cause nerve damage caused Wernicke-Korsakoff
· Deficiency makes you more likely to get canker sores.
|Vitamin B-2 Riboflavin (10 mg = 589%)||1.7 mg||1.3 mg||50-100 mg||No known toxicity level, but excessive doses result in harmless bright, fluorescent yellow urine. Older people should not exceed 10 mg/day.||
for releasing energy from food. Vital
for normal growth & development, normal red blood cells, &
making hormones. Without
riboflavin, niacin & pyridoxine can’t do their main jobs.
Provides energy inside
the cells by creating 2 enzymes vital for releasing energy from fats,
carbs, & proteins.
Regulates cell growth
& reproduction & helps make red blood cells.
Most important role is
cell respiration. Molecules
of oxygen & food enter a cell and carry into the mitochondria where
energy is released from oxygen & food.
Helps immune system by
keeping mucous membranes that line your respiratory & digestive
systems in good shape. Also,
helps manufacture antibodies to fight off germs.
Eyes, nerves, skin,
nails, & hair all need riboflavin to stay healthy.
May also help memory.
Exception to the
Water-Soluble rule because you store small amounts in your kidneys &
liver. Thus, takes 3-4
months for a deficiency to show up.
Early sign of deficiency
is sores and cracks on the lips (especially corners of your mouth).
Scaly skin, red eyes, & anemia are other deficiency signs.
You need extra if you
exercise a lot or are a vegetarian.
High exercise requires lots of energy production;
some atheletes & bodybuilders claim they can train harder
& longer with Riboflavin supplements. Also can bounce back faster
from training sessions.
Quickly destroyed by
light. Thus, milk, pasta,
grains, & vegetables should be stored in opaque containers or dark
You only absorb about
15% of riboflavin in supplements especially if taken on empty stomach.
· Studies show that high daily doses (~400mg/day) sharply reduce the # & severity of migraines. Theory is that migraine people have low cellular energy reserves in their brains.
|Vitamin B-3 Niacin (includes Nicotinic Acid & Niacinamide) (25 mg = 125%)||19 mg||15 mg||20-100 mg||Over 1000 mg can cause niacin “flush”. Over 3g/day can cause liver problems. Supplements can be either niacinamide or nicotinic acid; if you want a supplement, choose niacinamide in smallest doses. Even 100 mg of niacinamide can cause heartburn, nausea, & headaches in some people. The only real reason to take nicotinic acid is to treat high blood cholesterol under doctor’s supervision. WARNING: If you have liver problems, diabetes, ulcers, gout, or take high blood pressure medicine, niacin supplements could worsen the problems.||
by > 50 body processes from releasing energy from food
(carbohydrates) to making hormones to detoxifying chemicals.
Important to make
Controls how much
glucose is in the blood which gives energy when you need it.
Acts as an antioxidant
within your cells but only on-the-spot when releasing energy.
Works with Riboflavin
& Pyridoxine to keep skin, nervous system, & digestion healthy.
In large doses, can help
Your body breaks protein
down into amino acids including tryptophan.
Half of the tryptophan is used to make 50,000+ proteins;
the other half is converted into niacin.
Deficiency (rare today)
causes pellagra disease (characterized by dermatitus, dementia, &/or
You are unlikely to be
deficient unless you abuse alcohol or a strict vegetarian or vegan.
· Niacin seems to help with intermittant claudication (leg aches & calf muscle cramps) by widen blood vessels, vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus (ringing in the ears), & PMS headaches.
|Vitamin B-5 Pantothenic Acid (25 mg = 250%)||N/A (1)||N/A (1)||4-7 mg||Only people subject to possible deficiency are long-term alcoholics. Can’t really overdose, but can get diarrhea from very large doses; excess is excreted.||
with other B’s to breakdown fat, protein, & carbohydrates into
energy. Required to make
vitamin D, some hormones, & red blood cells.
So prevalent in foods, nobody is ever deficient. Present in every food you eat. Required to make hormones and healthy red blood cells. May also boost athletic performance, fix high cholesterol, & stop graying hair. Pantothenic acid creates 2 enzymes required to convert fats & carbs into energy. Pantethine supplements appears to reduce cholesterol & triglycerides.
|Vitamin B-6 Pyridoxine (10 mg = 500%)||2 mg||1.6 mg||3-50 mg||
for sustained periods can cause tingling in neck & feet, loss of
coordination, & permanent nerve damage.
Some who’ve taken 200mg/day for years have had same symptoms.
You may need supplements if you are pregnant or breastfeeding, strict vegetarian or vegan, take birth control pills. Abuse alcohol, smoke, take certain prescription drugs for high blood pressure, TB, rheumatoid arthritus or asthma.
job is to shuffle amino acids to make > 5000 proteins and > 60
enzymes your body needs to run properly.
Important to regulate
and maintain your immune system.
Keeps your red blood
Helps your nerves
When teamed with Folic
Acid & Cobalamin, drops risk of heart disease;
just get 4 mg to make a big difference.
People with asthma &
diabetes often benefit from pyridoxine.
May also help high blood
pressure & PMS.
Turns proteins you eat
into proteins your body needs and convert carbohydrates from form you
store them to form you use for energy.
Symptoms of Deficiency:
get sick more, anemia, or red blood cells not carrying enough
oxygen. More symptoms are numbness or tingling in hands & feet,
You need good levels of
magnesium (at least the RDA) for pyridoxine to work properly.
With Folic Acid &
Cobalamin, prevents heart disease by keeping blood cells from getting
sticky & clumping or aggregating which eventually causes blood clots
and artherosclerosis due to chemicals released by the cells.
High doses on the order
of 500 mg per day can lower blood pressure.
May help against
melanoma skin cancer.
With magnesium can keep
kidney stones from coming back.
· May help stop morning sickness.
|Vitamin B-7 Biotin (300 mcg = 100%)||N/A (1)||N/A (1)||30-100 mcg||Can become deficient if on long-term, low-calorie diet, if you eat a lot of raw eggs||
by body processes to break down fats, proteins, & carbohydrates into
fuel. Also called Vitamin H.
So prevalent in foods, nobody is ever deficient.
|Vitamin B-9 Folic Acid (400 mcg = 100%)||200 mcg||180 mcg||800 mcg – 2 mg||
could be deficient if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, abuse alcohol,
smoke cigarettes, take birth control pills, older than 65; or if you
take drugs for inflammatory bowel disease, or urinary tract infections,
rheumatoid arthritus, or psoriasis.
Deficiency affects the growth & repair of your body’s
tissues. Symptoms include:
anemia, nausea, loss of appetite, diarrhea, malnutrition, weight
loss, weakness, sore tongue, headaches, irritability, mood swings, heart
acid is easily destroyed by processing, overcooking, or reheating.
will only absorb about half the folic acid you eat. Cook fresh veggies lightly in little water.
C prevents folic acid from breaking down too quickly in your body.
Nearly impossible to overdose. Any excess comes out harmlessly in your urine (makes it bright yellow). Most doctors recommend no more than 1mg/day in supplements.
homocysteine (normal metabolism waste product) from blood.
If you’re short of Folic Acid, homocysteine can build up &
cause artery damage leading to heart attack.
High homocysteine levels can be as bad as high cholesterol.
Need for making natural
chemicals that control your mood, appetite, & how well you sleep.
Low folic acid levels
are linked to depression.
Vital to keep arteries
open & lower chances of heart attack or stroke.
Keeps your front-line
defenses (i.e., your skin, lungs, & intestines) against infection
strong. Also works with
cobalamin to produce enough infection-fighting white blood cells.
Required to replace
millions of old cells everyday especially those that wear out &
divide rapidly (e.g., red blood cells, skin, and small intestine
Prevents birth defects.
Prevents heart disease
May help prevent cancer
(esp. colon & cervix).
· 1-2mg/day of Folic Acid (working with pyridoxine & cobalamin) quickly breaks down homocysteine and removes it from your body before it can do any arterial damage. NOTE: Most people with heart attacks also have NORMAL cholesterol levels; it’s high levels of the amino acid, homocysteine, that causes arterial blockage. Some estimate that 1 mg/day of folic acid could prevent 50,000 heart attacks per year! Homocysteine levels above 14 micromoles/liter for men (8.5 micromoles/liter for women) is cause for concern – talk to Dr. about raising folic acid level.
|Vitamin B-12 Cobalamin (20 mcg = 333%)||2 mcg||Same
could be deficient if you are over 50, pregnant, breastfeeding, smoke,
take certain drugs, taking potassium supplements, or had part of stomach
impossible to overdose on cobalamin;
any excess is excreted. NOTE:
Large doses of vitamin C can destroy cobalamin;
don’t take these supplements together.
D: Anemia, M: depression, confusion, & other senility symptoms
to process carbohydrates, proteins, & fats in food into energy.
Forms the protective covering of nerve cells & keeps red
blood cells healthy. Prevents
with Folic acid to produce enough infection-fighting white blood cells.
Most important role is
making healthy red blood cells. Without enough cobalamin, the red blood
cells your body makes will be too large & fragile to work well.
Insufficient red blood cells to carry oxygen & nutrients
leads to anemia.
Also, required to make
white blood cells for the immune system
Makes the protective
fatty layer (or sheath) that lines your nerve cells (like insulation on
electrical wires). If the
sheath is damaged and you have insufficient cobalamin, you start getting
equivalent of static on the line. This
can eventually interfere with mental function (and appear to be
Works with other B
vitamins to convert carbs, fats, & proteins in food into energy in
homocysteine from blood before arterial damage occurs.
Water-soluble but some
stored in your liver & kidneys.
· Deficiency can take 4-5 years to show, but shows up as anemia. Early symptoms include tingling (“pins & needles”) or numbness in hands & feet, moodiness, depression, apnea, memory loss, dizziness, loss of balance, & dementia. Such deficiency is very common over age 60.
|Calcium (60 mg = 6%)||1000 mg||Same
(NIH recommends 1500 mg for women > 65)
of all young people don’t meet the daily recommended intake for
calcium. Primary reason
people don’t get enough milk. You
should drink 3 glasses/day to get all the calcium you need.
& glocucorticoids (synthetic steroid hormones) used for severe
asthma, lupus, rheumatoid arthritus, inflammatory bowel disease, &
other medical problems as well as high-cholesterol drugs rob your body
of calcium. If you are
taking any of these, you need calcium & vitamin D supplements.
you take nonprescription antacids containing aluminum (e.g., Maaolx,
Rolaids, Gelusil, etc.) your body may store aluminum in your bones
instead of calcium which will weaken your bones especially if also have
has been proven that caffeine does not cause bone loss.
drinkers & smokers have high risk of osteoporosis.
Smokers have lower bone density;
alcohol interferes with calcium absorption.
Spread out your calcium supplements throughout the day – don’t take more than 600 mg at a time. Don’t take more than 2000 mg per day. In rare cases, over 2000 mg/day can cause hypercalcemia (calcium overload in the blood) with symptoms including appetite loss, drowsiness, constipation, dry mouth, headache, & weakness. Take with ~200 IU of Vitamin D/day to improve absorption and retention of Calcium in your bones. Magnesium also helps the Calcium/Vitamin D pair.
muscle growth & healthy blood sugar level
abundant mineral in your body; makes
~2% of total body weight (~2-3 lbs). 98% of calcium is in your bones;
another 1% in teeth, and the rest in your blood. NOTE:
There’s 206 bones & most of them are made of calcium
phosphate. Bones constantly
replaced; until age 30-35,
bone builds faster than breaks down thus increasing size & density.
With insufficient calcium, your bones break down too fast, and
bones become too thin, brittle, & break easily (osteoporosis).
Helps regulate your
Helps control your blood
Helps clot your blood
Helps contract your
Helps send messages
along your nerves.
Required to make many
hormones & enzymes (esp. ones that control your digestion & how
you make energy & use fats)
Helps build your
May help prevent high
blood pressure & colon cancer.
Calcium Citrate &
Calcium Lactate are the preferred forms of supplement.
Do not take Bone meal (may have high lead content), Dolomite
(calcium magnesium carbonate), & Oyster Shell Calcium (may have
lead, mercury, & cadmium).
· Your body uses calcium around the clock and is best taken over the course of the day.
|No one is ever really deficient … except if you have gotten sick and vomitted a lot or have severe diarrhea.|
|No one is ever really deficient … except if you have gotten sick and vomitted a lot or have severe diarrhea.|
|Phosphorus (3 mg = 0.4%)||700 mg||Same
most abundant mineral in your body (~1% of your body weight).
Over 80% of your Phosphorus is combined with Calcium in your
bones & teeth.
So widespread, it’s practically impossible to be deficient.
|N/A (2)||N/A (2)||Required to make many amino acids and natural anti-oxidants. Very common in foods, and no one ever really gets deficient. Can’t overdose on sulfur; excess is excreted in urine.|
|Magnesium (15 mg = 4%)||350 mg||Same
magnesium causes body to pull it out of your bones for your bloodstream
which can lead to weakened bones. You
have to be very low in magnesium for long period to show any deficiency
likely to be deficient if you abuse alcohol, have diabetes, have kidney
disease, vomited a lot, have severe diarrhea, or use diuretic drugs.
you don’t get enough Mg, all tissues are affected, but you feel it
most in your heart, nerves, & kidneys.
symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, muscle weakness, muscle
tremors, irritability, rapid heartbeat, irregular heartbeat, and
breathing problems (e.g., asthma).
600 mg can give you diarrhea.
best supplements for absorption are Mg aspartate, Mg glycinate, or Mg
to spread your Magnesium input throughout the day and take with meals.
your muscles relax. Plays
big role in keeping heartbeat healthy & keeping blood pressure low.
Every cell in your body needs magnesium to produce energy.
Required to make over 300 enzymes to send messages along nerves.
Vitamin C and calcium work better with Magnesium. Relaxes
artery walls and increases blood flow (250 mg twice per day)..
Used in treatment of
migraines, asthma, diabetes
Works with Calcium to
keep bones strong throughout life.
Protects against heart
attacks caused by blood clots.
Seems to help against
· Seems to help prevent recurrant kidney stones
|Potassium (20 mg = **)||2,000 mg||Same
one is ever really deficient … except if you have gotten sick and
vomitted a lot or have severe diarrhea.
If you are low in potassium, you might get muscle cramps in your legs (can happen to athletes who sweat a lot). If you are really low on potassium, you’ll feel nauseous and very weak and listless. In REALLY severe cases, you could have heart failure.
antioxidant supports prostate health
high blood pressure.
|Boron (1 mg = **)||N/A (3)||Builds healthy bones||Helps absorb calcium into bones and keep it there.|
|Chromium (50 mg = 42%)||--
|50-200 mcg||50-200 mcg||Controls blood sugar. Best to get chromium through food, not supplements.||Seems to help Type II or adult-onset diabetes by helping get glucose into cells better. None of the other claimed benefits have been substantiated.|
|N/A (3)||Needed for Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) to help make red blood cells and no other purpose.|
|Copper (100 mg = 5%)||--
|1.5 – 3 mg||1.5-3 mg||
for anti-oxidant enzymes, red blood cells, other enzymes.
If you don’t get enough copper, your arteries can become
inflexible and rupture.
anyone is ever deficient.
Don’t exceed 10 mg/day. Symptoms of overdose are nausea and vomiting.
your heart & blood vessels because it’s required to make an enzyme
that keeps arteries flexible. Also
necessary to make the insulating sheath that covers your nerves.
Works with iron to red blood cells healthy.
Very important for making the natural anti-oxidant SuperOxide
Competes with zinc to be absorbed into your body. Nutritionists recommend a ratio of 10 parts Zinc to 1 part Copper.
against tooth decay, builds healthy bones.
We know you DON’T need fluoride, but it’s very valuable for
preventing tooth decay. Helps
build strong bones & keep them that way.
Some evidence that those who live where the water is fluoridated,
have less osteoporosis.
No evidence that fluoride causes cancer, heart disease, kidney disease, Alzheimer’s disease, or any other health problem.
|Iodine (100 mg = 67%)||150 mcg||--
|Needed for thyroid hormones which play big role in your growth, cell reproduction, nerve functions, & how cells use oxygen. Without enough iodine, your thyroid swells up to make more hormones. Too much iodine can cause goiter. More than 1000 mg per day may cause acne flare-ups.|
|Iron (9 mg = 50%)||10-15 mg||--
for hemoglobin in red blood cells primarily to carry oxygen in your
blood. Insufficient iron
reduces the number of red blood cells which is anemia;
you will become weak, tired, pale, & short of breath.
Be careful with iron supplements; they can cause constipation or diarrhea. Don’t exceed 30 mg per day.
WARNING: The amount of iron in 3-4 adult iron supplements can cause serious poisoning of a young child. Keep V&M out of children’s reach.
|Manganese (2 mg = 100%)||--
|2.5-5 mg||2.5-5 mg||
for protein digestion, tissue formation.
can increase risk of osteoporosis.
Too much manganese can interfere with iron absorption.
to do a lot of the same things a Magnesium such as helping make
connective tissue, clot your blood, move glucose around, and digest
proteins. May also be an
Helps reduce menstrual
· Important for building strong bones.
|Molybdenum (10 mcg = 13%)||--
|75-250 mcg||75-250 mcg||
growth & development
Almost impossible to be deficient.
your tissues contain molybdenum. Required
to make several enzymes particularly xanthine oxidase required to grow
& develop normally and to use iron properly.
May help prevent esophageal cancer.
to make some enzymes and hormones.
Too much is associated with cancer, heart disease, & skin problems.
|Selenium (50 mcg = 72%)||55-70
for anti-oxidant enzyme glutathione.
get enough from your food.
cancer-prevention benefits of selenium only kick in with 200 mcg/day, so
you may want to consider supplements.
Best to get yeast-based “organic” supplements;
avoid inorganic forms such as sodium selenite or selenate.
Can be toxic in amounts > 600 mcg/day although 200 mcg/day seems to be quite safe.
body’s most abundant natural anti-oxidant is an enzyme called
glutathione peroxidase which requires selenium for your body to make it.
been shown to be a powerful cancer-prevention supplement specifically
for colorectal, lung, and prostate cancer.
Longevity booster (200 mcg/2 days).
Longevity booster (200 mcg/2 days).
May also help against
Helps your immune system
work effectively and helps remove heavy metals (e.g., lead) from your
· Strongly aids vitamin E in doing its job.
healthy bones, cartilage, & connective tissues.
Supplements made from horsetail plant claiming to help nails, hair, bones, and arteries are Worthless.
|Vanadium (10 mcg = **)||N/A (3)||No known need, and could be toxic in moderate doses.||Supports male hormone (testosterone) muscle growth, prostate|
|Zinc (15 mg = 100%)||12-15 mg||--
very little and most get enough from food.
Slight deficiency is not uncommon.
You are most at risk for deficiency if you are ..
A strict vegetarian or
Eat a very high-fiber
You’re pregnant or
You’re over 50
You abuse alcohol.
Symptoms include slowed growth in children, slow wound healing, frequent infections, skin irritations, hair loss, & loss of taste.
testosterone, muscle growth, prostate
important for your immune system. May
help you recover from colds more quickly.
Helps heal quickly from wounds, keeps skin healthy, preserves
eyesight, and may improve memory.
Over 200 enzymes require
zinc to work properly.
You need zinc to make
the enzyme required to break down alcohol.
Required to make many
hormones including the ones that tell your immune system what to do
under attack from germs.
Essential to make
hormones that control growth and to make testosterone.
Present in all your
cells, but mostly in skin, hair, nails, and eyes, and in your prostate
gland if you are male.
Best supplement forms
are zinc gloconate, zinc picolinate, zinc citrate, or zinc
sulfate is likely to upset your stomach.
Zinc oxide is really only useful in skin creams to block
sunlight. Take any
supplements with meals to avoid stomach upset.
Use low-fiber meals to increase absorption.
Zinc can prevent
prostate problems, but does nothing to stop balding or restoring lost
May help ward of zits in
· The most important element to prevent or treat benign prostatic hyperplasmia (BPH).
|SF: Alfalfa (high chlorophyll)||Rich form of energy|
|Amino Acid Complex (1772 mg = **)||Promotes healthy heart|
|Beta Carotene (5000 IU = **) Not considered essential; thus, no RDA established.||
are the natural pigments in red, orange, & yellow plant foods;
they also come in potatoes & dark green leafy vegetables.
carotene molecules are split in half (into 2 molecules of vitamin A) by
special enzymes in your small intestine.
If you don’t need vitamin A at that time, it doesn’t split at
that time; the beta
carotens enter cells and get stored in fatty tissues until needed (then
the liver splits it). It’s
better to get vitamin A this way from plant foods rather than animal
foods or supplements because (1) un-split beta carotenes act as powerful
antioxidants (alpha carotene is 10X as effective for mopping up free
radicals), (2) Large doses of vitamin A can be toxic whereas carotenes
are not. The worse that
could happen from too much beta carotene is your underlying fat turns
orange-yellow & shows through your skin.
WARNING: If you smoke, you shouldn’t take beta carotene supplements due to increased risk of lung cancer.
|SF: Rooted algae (phytonutrient rich)||Enhances
absorption of other nutrients & controls toxic reactions caused by
diet & chemical exposure of diet & environment. Proven effective as muscle builder, energy enhancer,
anti-arthritic, & appetite suppressant
|N: Beta-Glucans||Helps protect body from viruses, cancer, etc.|
|Bilberry||Strong and flexible cell walls. Powerful antioxidant. Good for retina.|
|Choline (30 mg = **) Unofficial Vitamin B||
your brain & memory function
Helps store memories. Sometimes helpful for treating depression and hepatitus. Can get from food & your body (i.e., intestinal bacteria) manufactures this. Required to metabolize fats properly.
|Dandelion Leaf & Root 4:1 (10 mg)||Promotes healthy heart & circulation|
|Echinacea||Don't tale more than 8 weeks in a row or benefits will be reduced.||Boosts infection defenses.|
|T: Fo-Ti root 5:1 (20 mg)||
digestion, liver, & kidneys
Chinese claim lubricates the intestines (stops constipation) and
provides antitoxic and nodule-dispersing (anti-swelling) benefits.
Inhibition against 9 species of bacteria.
Tonifies the liver & kidneys, nourishes blood, & benefits the
effect: in vitro inhibitory effect on Mycobacterium TB & Shigella
& stops leakage: used for nocturnal emission, spermatorrhea, or
poison: used for fire poison carbuncles, sores, scrofula, goiter, &
Used for wind
rash by nourishing the blood.
cholesterol in rabbits & atherosclerosis
· Removes symptoms of malaria
|Garlic||Lowers blood pressure and cholesterol.|
|T: Ginger Root 5:1 (10 mg)||Relieves nausea esp. for motion sickness. Good appetite stimulant & relieves heartburn & gas. May also help lower cholesterol, reduce swelling, pain, & stiffness of arthritis, and aids circulation.|
|T: Ginkgo Leaf 8:1 (10 mg)||
your brain & memory
Med: Packed with compounds
that improve circulation by relaxing & dilating blood vessels.
Helps brain, ears, & extremities.
Helps poor blood flow to brain which leads to memory problems,
hearing problems, dizziness, & dementia.
May help Alzheimer’s disease.
Can help prevent asthma attacks & lessens severity.
Helps lift mood & reduce anxiety from stress.
Makes you feel more alert. Helps
concentration & memory; doesn’t keep you from sleeping like
caffeine. Very safe even in
large doses. Best form is
ginkgo biloba extract (GBE).
in flavonoids that boost memory and mental alertness through antioxidant
action. Some claim it can
reverse free radical damage to brain cell membranes.
The usual dose for cerebral insufficiency is 40 mg 3X/day.
Ginkgo biloba trees where here when the dinosaurs where here (200 million years ago – Jurassic period) è Oldest tree species on earth.
|Gingko Biloba||120-240 mg/day (Best: 100 mg twice per day)||120-240 mg/day (Best: 100 mg twice per day||Good for improved memory, alertness, and mental clarity. Also see Ginkgo Leaf above.|
|Lycopene||10 mg/day||10 mg/day||Prevent prostate cancer and bone deterioration. Can get 10 mg/day from one 12oz. glass of tomato juice, one 12oz can of tomato sauce, or 1 medium-to-large tomato. Best source is cooked tomato sauce.|
|T: Panax Ginseng Root 4:1 (10 mg)||
Root helps memory, gives energy, improves stamina, slows down aging
process, boosts immune system, improves love life, lowers cholesterol,
& preserves male virility.
usage can lead to insomnia, headaches, high blood pressure, heart
palpitations, or diarrhea.
PANAX GINSENG (i.e., Chinese Ginseng, Red Ginseng, & Korean Ginseng).
|T: Siberian Ginseng Root 5:1 (25 mg)||
physical endurance & performance, concentration, adaptation to
Med: Ginseng Root helps
memory, gives energy, improves stamina, slows down aging process, boosts
immune system, improves love life, lowers cholesterol, & preserves
male virility. NOTE:
Sustained usage can lead to insomnia, headaches, high blood
pressure, heart palpitations, or diarrhea. Do not use anymore than 3
weeks out of a 4-week period.
SIBERIAN GINSENG is not true ginseng. Has most of the same benefits as Chinese or American (white) ginseng, but no insomnia. Recommended as a nerve tonic to deal with stress & helps you sleep.
|N: Glutathione (GSH)||
the liver and protects the body from environmental toxins.
best anti-oxidant of all is the one you make naturally in your body:
glutathione. It also rounds up all sorts of dangerous toxic wastes and
whisks them away, before they can do any harm. GSH is a tripeptide (made from 3 amino acids).
higher your GSH level, the less likely you will get heart disease,
diabetes, high blood pressure, and more.
GSH protects your eyes against free radicals and helps prevent
cataracts, etc. Helps your
immune system work at top efficiency.
could be low on GSH if you have a bad cold or flu, you’re exposed to
lots of toxins, have chronic disease such as asthma or rheumatoid
If you want to take GSH supplements, the less expensive powder is best; dissolve it in water or sprinkle on cold foods, but don’t mix with acidic liquids like OJ.
|T: Hawthorn Berry 4:1 (10 mg)||Supports your heart, energy level, memory, adaptation to stress. Lowers blood pressure and prevents clotting.|
|SF: Hydrilla Verticillata (High chlorophyll)||
energy level, muscle growth, appetites suppression.
“A superior rooted algae” Enhanced
nutrient absorption – research shows animals supplemented with
Hydrilla grow faster because the hydrilla facilitates the utilization of
Antioxidant, energy enhancer, anti-aging properties, blood builder
(provides all known essential nutrients for the blood: chlorophyll,
magnesium, B-12, Copper, Cobalt, Iron, vital micro & macro
Skips cycle in growth process of the plant è
plant can store the energy normally used to grow.
Multiple studies show animals burn fat when fed Hydrilla è
given to farmed fish; stopped
feeding to cattle because it made them too lean.
* Has ability to change the molecular structure of toxins in water rendering them harmless.
|Inositol (30 mg = **) Unofficial Vitamin B||Required to make healthy cell membranes & messenger chemicals. Sometimes helpful for relieving nerve damage from diabetes. Can get from food & your body manufactures this.|
|T: Licorice Root 4:1 (10 mg)||Promotes healthy joints|
Unofficial Vitamin B
other B Vitamins. Works
closely with Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, & Pantothenic Acid to
convert carbohydrates, fats, & proteins in food into energy.
antioxidant & helps recycle vitamin C and E.
Helps boost glutathione by helping you recycle it better.
|Milk Thistle||Enables liver to repair itself from smog and alcohol. Try silymarin capsules or milk-thistle seeds.|
|PABA (5 mg = **) Unofficial Vitamin B||Stands for “Para-aminobenzoic acid.” Powerful antioxidant protects your skin from sun damage.|
|WF: Pumpkin Seed Extract (25 mg)||Promote men’s prostate & Genito-urinary tract health|
|N: RNA/DNA Nucleic Acids (192 mg = **)||Some claim that supplements containing DNA and RNA can help “revitalize” you or restore a youthful appearance, but they are worthless.|
|T: Sarsaparilla Root 4:1 (10 mg)||Promotes healthy prostrate & blood pressure|
|Saw Palmetto||Prevents prostate problems.|
|N: Super-Oxide Dismutase (SOD)||Most potent antioxidant in the body à defends against free radicals.|
|Antioxidant Mix||50 mg of mixed
carotenoids per day
200 IU of Vitamin E per day
1 mg Folic Acid per day
50 mg of Coenzyme Q-10 per day
20 mg Zinc per day
500 mg of Vitamin C per 2 days
|Ultimate Anti-Aging Diet||8-10
fruit/vegetable servings per day
Beans 5 times per week
Minimally processed foods
Eight 8-oz. glasses of water per day (Green tea also counts)
Avoid fat, sugar, and alcohol
|Veriuni Advanced Liquid Nutrition||Highly
All-natural liquid supplement containing nearly every daily nutrient required for robust health -- all in a single, concentrated, easy-to-swallow, delicious, peach-flavored, one-ounce dose. In all, more than 127 nutrients, 77 plant-derived minerals, and 13 vitamins, plus 12 herbs and 18 amino acids.Click Here For Details
SF = Super Foods
WF = Whole Food Extracts
T: Tonic Whole-Herb Extracts
N: Naturally occurring food Factors
* These benefits are those stated by various references from which this data is compiled. These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These vitamins, minerals, herbs, and food supplements are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
** è No RDA established.
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